Chippy McNish returns to the wreck of Endurance and removes the entire wheelhouse so it can be used as a storehouse at Ocean Camp. When he chops through the deck, cases of provisions float up and are salvaged.
Photographer Frank Hurley makes a trip to the ship and later wrote in his diary, “I hacked through the thick walls…to retrieve negatives… They were located beneath four feet of mushy ice & by stripping to the waist & diving under I hauled them out. Fortunately they are soldered up in double tin linings, so I am hopeful they may not have suffered by their submersion.”
When Hurley returns to camp, Ernest Shackleton relents and allows Hurley to exceed his personal weight limit of two pounds. He and Hurley sort through the negatives, keeping 100 and dumping about 400. Shackleton had previously sold the story rights to the expedition and now determines that Hurley’s photographs will be valuable.
With warming temperatures of the austral summer, the surface of the ice turns slushy.
On the evening of Nov. 21, the men hear Shackleton call, “She’s going.” In the distance, Endurance sinks bow first into the ocean.
By mid-December the camp on the pack ice has drifted north across the Antarctic Circle, but a few days later the wind shifts and drives them back. Shackleton decides to attempt another push toward land and an arduous trek begins on Dec. 23. After eight hours of incredible labor, the group progresses only a mile and a half.
|The men of the Endurance hauling one of the life boats across the Antarctic pack ice.|
Trouble arises. Carpenter McNish, suffering from piles and still heartsick at the loss of his cat, Mrs. Chippy, tells Shackleton that his duty to follow orders terminated with the loss of the ship. The Boss, as Shackleton is known, calls the men together and reads the ship’s articles.
He then adds that the men will be paid until they reach a safe port, a complete variation of normal ship’s articles. This, he says, makes the men bound by his orders until that time. Morale is at a dangerous low and when Shackleton reluctantly calls a halt to the march two days later, they must retreat a half mile to stronger ice.
|The galley at the new Patience Camp, February, 1916.|
After eight back-breaking days, the men find themselves setting up a new camp on dangerously unstable ice. They are now cut off from Ocean Camp, where lumber for tent floors, books, an efficient cook stove, and many provisions were left.
Black and white photos above by Frank Hurley, courtesy of:
South with Endurance: Shackleton's Antarctic Expedition 1914-1917
The Photographs of Frank Hurley
Book Creation Services, Ltd., London, 2001
I wake up in a beautiful bay, the Fram rocking gently on choppy waters trying to calm after the big ruckus during the night that threw passengers out of bed. The clouds have cleared and the skies are blue. Perfect day for a landing on one of the most remote places on earth, and our first is here in Fortuna Bay, on the leeward northeastern side of the island.
It is also here that I once again stumble across the footprints of famed British explorer Captain James Cook, who charted and described this island. The first place I found him was in the place where I grew up—Anchorage, Alaska.
Back in the 1700s, Cook sent his boat captain, William Bligh (yes, THAT Bligh), up one of two arms of an inlet now called Cook Inlet. Bligh, realizing this arm was not a throughway to the elusive Northwest Passage, named this one Turnagain Arm. Cook later sailed south to the Hawaiian Islands, meeting his end at the hands of the natives there.
While Cook found little potential in South Georgia island, his notes about the numerous seals resulted in commercial endeavors by sealers from Britain and the United States. In 1904, a Norwegian company established the first whaling station at Grytviken (grit-VICK-en), a few miles from here.
Watch this video very carefully, especially the last two penguins in line. When the forward one stops to preen itself, take note of what the last one does. It happens quickly, about 9 seconds into the video.
One hundred and four miles long by .9 to 23 miles wide, South Georgia has six peaks rising more than 6500 feet. The tallest, Mount Paget, measures 9,626 feet. The South Sandwich Islands also are part of South Georgia, and together the land mass is but 1507 square miles. Glaciers cover fifty-seven per cent of the island.
|King penguins and tourists. Breakwind Mountains in background.|
Strict measures are in place for landing on the island, including the afore-mentioned vacuuming of the clothing we were going to wear, in an effort to avoid introduction of organic material including animals, plants, seeds, soil, and diseases. In addition to the usual boot wash station on the ship’s platform where we board and get off the Polarcirkle boats, a sanitizing boot bath is added. It is simply a chunk of wet foam rubber in a small square well containing a sanitizing liquid in which we step.
|The King penguin welcoming committee.|
Once we get to shore, we walk past the elephant and fur seals to a huge King penguin colony near a glacier. Ninety-five percent of the Antarctic fur seals breed here, and half the world population of Southern elephant seals. Millions of penguins and other sea birds nest here, including 250,000 albatross and the spectacular Wandering albatross with a wingspan of about ten feet.
|King penguin and furry chick.|
|King penguin chick follows a parent, begging for food.|
This is a video of the hungry (above) chick and its parent. The chick makes high-pitched noises like songbirds.
Though asked to stay five yards from the penguins, somebody forgot to tell the penguins. They didn’t seem to care at all that we were there, or perhaps they are used to the summer influx of tourists that is fast becoming a significant economic factor. Fishing is first, accounting for 90 percent of the revenues.
There is much history here and Ernest Shackleton is right in the middle of it, as we shall see in later journals.
|The larger seal is a male elephant seal, with a huge proboscis.|
|Fur seal and King penguin|
|These two fur seals were fighting immediately before this photo was taken. The seal on the left has a patch of hide torn loose just above its front flipper.|
|Penguin tracks in snow.|
|First of four photos that are part of a panoramic view of the King penguin rookery at Fortuna Bay.|